An imbalance between physical and emotional stress, trauma and complications suffered, hypothermia and cold contribute to the development of osteochondrosis. The pathology is provoked by degenerative changes in cartilage segments and bone tissue. Increased disc mobility increases the likelihood of the process, as evidenced by the statistics of greater distribution in the cervical and lumbar regions. In addition to the spine, the joints of the upper and lower extremities are also affected.

back hurts with osteochondrosis

Types and causes of osteochondrosis

Excessive overload of the vertebral segments or joints, depending on the location and degree, is the main cause of osteochondrosis, which is divided into the following types:

  1. Osteochondrosis of the chest region is a pathological process with unclear etiology, however, according to clinical studies, it develops as a result of:
    • hormonal disorders;
    • improper attitude;
    • structural anomalies and curvatures;
    • received injuries;
    • professional activity accompanied by stress or prolonged shaking of the spine;
    • flat feet;
    • restriction of physical activity or reverse process due to physical overload;
    • overweight.
  2. Osteochondrosis of the cervix is a pathology commonly called "salt deposition". The main causes of cervical osteochondrosis lie in the increased activity of the cervix and the caused malnutrition of tissues against the background of:
    • excessive stress on the neck;
    • hypothermia and previous colds;
    • uncontrolled playing of sports without respecting safety measures and security measures;
    • unfavorable conditions for meteorological factors;
    • stressful situations;
    • sitting for a long time without changing posture;
    • exposure to chemicals.
  3. Osteochondrosis dissecans or Koening disease is a degenerative-dystrophic process that begins with dystrophy followed by increased inflammation of the knee joints, hips, elbow, and shoulder-clavicle. Causes of the show include:
    • injuries received;
    • hereditary predisposition;
    • violation of the permeability of the branch of the adjacent artery.

Pathological abnormalities provoke a disordered growth of bone tissue, dislocation of the discs and joints, and irritation of the nerve roots, which is accompanied by pain.

Symptoms of diseases

The clinical picture, depending on the type of pathology, is different. In particular, shortness of breath occurs in osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine, caused by:

  • pain that increases with breathing and restriction of movement in the chest area;
  • intercostal neuralgia provoked by irritation or damage to the spinal roots;
  • secondary deformities in the chest region on the background of kyphoscoliosis and a decrease in lung volume.

Due to the clinical appearance, disguised as symptomatology of other diseases, the pathological process is confused with angina pectoris, ischemia, pneumonia, gastroenterological disorders, as a result of which it is called "chameleon".

One of the common symptoms is dizziness with cervical osteochondrosis, which occurs due to constriction of blood vessels and impaired cerebral circulation, in which an insufficient amount of oxygen and nutrients enters the brain. The pathology is manifested by additional symptoms:

  • loss of spatial orientation;
  • the appearance of noise in the head and ears;
  • darkening of the eyes or bright spots;
  • throbbing headaches;
  • nausea and vomiting.

If you have limited tongue movement and shaking while walking, seek urgent medical attention and lie face down before the patient arrives.

The symptoms of Koening disease are defined by the stage of the process, ranging from restlessness and rapid fatigue of the affected limb to pain that increases over time and an increase in joint volume, visually visible.

Therapeutic activities

Treatment of the disease requires an integrated approach, divided into periods. In the acute phase, drug therapy is prescribed, physiotherapy methods and folk remedies are also used. During the remission period, recovery at resorts is recommended, but it should be remembered that spa treatment of osteochondrosis during an exacerbation will not only not be helpful, but may also be harmful.

Drug treatment

In the acute stages of osteochondrosis, medications are prescribed orally:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate the inflammatory process;
  • analgesic for pain relief;
  • muscle relaxants to eliminate muscle spasms;
  • anticonvulsants to eliminate compression of nerve endings;
  • hondoprotectors for cartilage tissue regeneration;
  • sedatives to relieve stress and support the nervous system;
  • vitamin complexes in order to provide the body with the necessary nutrients and overall strengthening.

To relieve pain, therapeutic blockades are used by injection directly into the affected area. The analgesic effect and increase local blood circulation is produced by topical ointments and creams applied to the affected area.

Physiotherapy procedures

Physiotherapy is prescribed both in parallel with medication and during the remission period to maintain a stable position and prevent relapse. For medical purposes, use:

  • attractive therapy and reflexology;
  • acupuncture with electrical stimulation and exposure to cold;
  • cup massage and acupressure;
  • ultrasonic and electromagnetic vibration therapy.

Procedures performed by a specialist appointed by the doctor improve blood circulation, restore the functionality of damaged segments and increase vitality. Self-medication can cause a relapse, lead to worsening, and contribute to the development of pathology.